Refueling over SEA

The F4, like most modern fighters, required frequent refueling during combat missions.  A fully loaded Phantom II could weigh in at more than 50, 000 pounds, with about 18,000 pounds of fuel in internal and external tanks.    If the afterburner were engaged, it slurped fuel at about 1,000 pounds a minute, which meant that the gas ran out pretty quickly.   Essentially there was a 15  minute “loiter” time to engage the enemy or drop bombs.   Then it was time to return to the Tanker before you reached “BINGO” fuel and returned to the base, if you made it, on fumes only.

In a typical 4 – 6 hour mission,  the Phantom might refuel three to four times.  If it were a close air support mission, it might mean formation flying off the tanker for an hour or more cycling in and out taking on gas as needed, until the Forward Air Controller, FAC, called the flight in on target.   For an air to air mission which involved a “dog fight,” after the engagement, the F4 would almost immediately  head for a tank to get gas.

Therefore,  it was essential that Fighter Jocks be able to refuel in the air and take on gas from the KC-135.  Unfortunately not all men who flew fighters could refuel.udn35

This brings me to the story of Capt Ted,  flying close formation off the tanker  was a skill he could not seem to master, it was hard to say why.   To say it is is very unsettling to some, is an understatement.  It requires intense concentration in a demanding situation.

View from the back seat of tanker

View from the back seat of tanker

You are tucked in tight below the tanker, which is a huge flying gasoline bomb carrying about 83,000 pounds of JP4 when fully loaded.  Any mistake would mean disaster to the crews of both aircraft.   In addition to the close proximity of the two aircraft, there is significant turbulence coming off the tanker to contend with.

Ted’s background was not in fighters, as were many of the men who flew the F4.  He had previously been a C-130 pilot.   During the early 1970s, as more and more men were lost in SEA, the Air Force moved pilots from one aircraft to another.  It was unusual for someone to move from a C-130 transport to a fighter but not unheard of, as evidenced by Ted.    13th TFS patch

When he got to SEA Ted’s difficulty with refueling became apparent he seemed to disappear.  I don’t know what happened to him in the end, but it was clear that there was no place in combat for someone who could not refuel.   Not all men were cut out to fly the F4.


About jenorv

John E. Norvell is a retired Air Force Lt Colonel, decorated air combat veteran of the Vietnam War, and former Assistant Professor of American and Military History at the U.S. Air Force Academy. He has written freelance for the Washington Post, the Middle Tennessee Journal of Genealogy and History, and for several newspapers around the country.
This entry was posted in 13 TFS, Air Force, American History, F-4 Phantom II, F4 Phantom II, Fighter Aircraft, SEA, U Dorn RTAFB, Udorn RTAFB, Vietnam War and tagged , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

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